U.S. Geological Survey Manual
Note: Aviation Management acronyms/definitions are located in Appendixes 15-4 and 15-5.
50.1 Purpose. The following definitions apply to this and other documents related to the Department of the Interior (Department or DOI) Occupational Safety and Health Program (Program) unless specifically stated in the document.
50.2 Glossary of Terms.
Abatement Plan. A written plan identifying program deficiencies, a timetable for correction, the individual(s) responsible for correction, the steps to be taken in the interim, and an explanation of the circumstances causing any delay in abatement.
Abstract of Serious Accident Investigation. Without identifying the specific incident, provides a summary of what happened, the direct and indirect contributing causes, and recommendations for preventing similar accidents.
Accident. An unplanned event that results in injury, illness, death, property damage, or other loss that has a negative effect on the mission.
Adequate Resources. Include, but are not limited to (see 29 CFR 1960):
A. Sufficient personnel to implement and administer the Program.
B. Abatement of unsafe and unhealthful working conditions.
C. Safety and health sampling, testing, and analysis.
D. Contracts to identify, analyze, and evaluate unsafe and unhealthful conditions.
E. Program promotional costs.
F. Technical information.
G. Medical surveillance programs for employees.
Bureau Administrator. The bureau facility/organization manager who has direct line authority over employee activity when and where a serious accident occurs. Examples of such administrators include a National Park Service Park Superintendent, a Bureau of Indian Affairs Agency Superintendent, a Bureau of Land Management District Manager, and a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Refuge Manager.
Bureau. Major organization within the Department, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs; the Bureau of Land Management; the Bureau of Reclamation; the Minerals Management Service; the National Park Service; the Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation, and Enforcement; the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); and (for the purposes of this Part 485) the Office of the Secretary.
Anode. The positive electrode.
Bonding. The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrical conductive path that assures electrical continuity, with the capacity to safely conduct current.
Branch Circuit. The circuit conductors between the final over current device protecting the circuit and the electrical load(s).
Cannon/Rocket Net Devices. Devices used to propel nets through the air to quickly entrap various species of wildlife.
Original Cannon Net Devices. Large bore cannons that fired a loosely fitting weighted shell with shock cords and line to the perimeter of the net. Explosives used in these devices were largely Class B explosives (smokeless powder) but were usually treated by most operators as Class C explosives for safety purposes because the material was packaged in small single-charge quantities and detonated with separately stored electric squibs.
Rocket Net Devices. The newer devices propel the net directly instead of with a propelled shell and functionally resemble a nonaerodynamic rocket. They have a blunt nosecone, a hollow tube body, a stabilizing fin (usually a long steel rod counterweight), and exhaust ports in the base. These devices have on occasion been referred to as recoilless cannons, but they are more correctly referred to as rockets because the entire chamber enclosing the explosion is lofted by the detonation of the charge contained within. These internal combustion rockets are connected to the nets with shock cords and ropes and are propelled by electrically fired Class B explosives.
Cathode. The negative electrode
Certified or Competent Person. See Qualified Person.
Certification. The process of testing an individual or system for compliance with established criteria.
Circuit Breakers. A device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically in the predetermined over current without damage to itself when properly applied within its rating.
Clinical Laboratory Tests. Tests included as a part of the overall medical examination used to detect the absorption of toxic agents, or the physiological or pathological effects caused by their absorption.
Collateral Duty Safety Occupational Health Officer. An employee who is charged with carrying out duties on a part-time basis that are normally performed by a full-time, professional safety and health employee.
Contractor. Any individual or firm under contractual agreement with the Department or its subunits for the performance of services, such as construction, landscaping, maintenance, and janitorial including subcontractors of a prime contractor.
Dead Man Switch. A switch that requires constant pressure to supply electrical current to the circuit.
Department(al). The Department of the Interior and its headquarters and Bureaus.
Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO). A person with sufficient authority to represent the interest of the organization and be responsible for the management and administration of the organization’s Occupational Safety and Health Program. The title is used herein alone to designate the Department level and is prefaced by “Bureau” to designate a Bureau level. Each Bureau (including the Office of the Secretary) is represented on the DASHO Council (see Chapter 9).
Designated Person. One who has been trained or is qualified and is assigned the responsibility to perform a specific task.
Electrofishing. The use of electricity to provide a sufficient electrical stimulus in fish to permit easy capture by netting.
Electrofishing Team Leader. The individual in charge of the electrofishing operation. Only persons demonstrating knowledge of the principles and techniques of electrofishing in accordance with 32.4(e) can serve as electrofishing team leaders.
Employees. Individuals employed to accomplish work (including volunteers) and those who work under USGS funding/direction.
Employee Representative. Where employee unions exist, a member of the work force selected by his/her peers to represent them in the administration of the safety program. This individual may be a member of the formal workplace inspection team for example.
Engineering Review. Review by qualified personnel of the safety, environmental health, structural integrity, code compliance, and fire protection aspects of major projects.
Entrapment. A situation where personnel are unexpectedly caught in a fire behavior-related, life-threatening position where planned escape routes or safety zones are absent, inadequate or have been compromised. An entrapment may or may not include deployment of a fire shelter for its intended purpose. These situations may or may not result in injury.
Ergonomics. The science of studying the worker in the workplace. Ergonomics involves applying the knowledge of human strengths and weaknesses to the design of workplaces, jobs, tasks, tools, equipment, and the environment.
Establishment. A single physical location where agency business is conducted or where services or operations are performed. Where distinctly separate activities are performed at a single physical location, each shall be considered to be a separate establishment. Typically, it refers to a field activity, regional office, area office, installation or facility.
Explosives. Any chemical compound mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion, including all material classified by the Department of Transportation as Class A, B, or C explosives.
Class A Explosives. High explosives possessing a detonating capability such as dynamite, nitroglycerin, picric acid, lead azide, fulminate of mercury, black powder, blasting caps, and primers also known as boosters.
Class B Explosives. Low explosives possessing a flammable capability such as propellant explosives, including some smokeless propellants.
Class C Explosives. Certain type of manufactured articles containing Class A or B explosives, or both, but in restricted quantities, such as fireworks.
Facility. An establishment, workplace, building, structure, construction site or other work environment.
Factual Report. A written report to a Bureau head and Bureau Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO) by the Serious Accident Investigation Team (SAIT) or Trained Investigator (TI) completed with 45 calendar days of a serious accident. The Factual Report contains only the bare facts related to the serious accident without any inferences, conclusions, or recommendations. Copies of the Factual Report or factual information gleaned from the Report may be distributed to other Bureaus and agencies by the Office of Managing Risk and Public Safety (MRPS).
Firearm. Any breech-loaded handgun or shoulder-fired small-arm from which a solid projectile is fired by gunpowder or compressed gas.
Firearm-like Devices. Devices that resemble firearms and fire paper blanks, hypodermic darts, cracker shells, etc.
Firearms Use. Denotes use, handle, carry, or store.
First Executive Level Manager. A field manager at a high Bureau executive level, such as a region/state/area/division director, who reports directly to the Bureau head.
Formal Evaluation/Inspection. A planned, scheduled review of the work environment and/or management procedures to determine the degree of implementation, enforcement, and/or compliance with safety and health requirements. A written report addresses the findings, conclusions, and recommendations for management action.
Ground. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
Health Evaluation. A medical examination, the scope of which is determined by a physician based upon an individual’s age, sex, medical history, and position requirements.
Hazard. Anything which causes danger, peril, or risk to persons or property.
Immediate Danger to Life/Health. A condition or practice that either poses an immediate threat to life and health or an immediate threat of severe exposure to contaminants, such as radioactive materials, which are likely to have an adverse delayed effects on health.
Imminent Danger. Any condition or practice that could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm before normal abatement actions can be taken.
Incident. For reporting purposes, an unplanned event involving people, equipment, or the environment that could have resulted in an injury, illness, or loss, but did not.
Industrial Hygiene. An occupational health science involving the identification, evaluation, and control of environmental factors/stresses arising in/from the workplace that causes sickness or impairs health.
Isolation Transformer. A transformer inserted into a system to separate one section of the system from undesired influences from other sections.
Lyme Disease. An infectious, seasonal disease named after Lyme, Connecticut, where it was identified in 1975. A corkscrew-shaped spirochetal microorganism transmitted by a host tick is responsible for the disease.
Lyme Disease Exposure Activities. Activities that consist of work that is performed in tick infested areas (defined below). For example, an employee who works outdoors and walks on paved paths without any contact with shrubs, long grasses, leaf litter, etc., does not perform an activity that presents an exposure potential, whereas an employee who walks through or handles long grasses, shrubs, etc., does.
Lyme Disease Frequent/Prolonged Exposure. Constant or regular exposure (for example, 5 hours per week) in tick infested areas during Lyme Disease season.
Lyme Disease Season. Generally regarded as April through August in most areas. Consult the State health department for more specific information as required.
Lyme Disease Testing Protocols. At the present time, testing protocols consist of an Immunoglobulin “M” (IgM) titer. Other laboratory tests include the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and Immunoglobulin G (IgG). These protocols may change with improved diagnostic methods.
Major Project. Construction or research activity or new operation costing more than $100,000.
Major Organizational Subunit. The first level under a Bureau, such as a region or district.
Management Report. A written report by the Serious Accident Investigation Team (SAIT) or Trained Investigator (TI) to a Bureau head and Bureau Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO) completed within 45 calendar days of an accident. The Management Report contains all of the bare facts that are contained in the Factual Report, but also contains the results of the investigation, the SAIT or TI’s opinions as to why management control systems did not prevent the accident (if applicable) and recommendations for preventing similar accidents.
Medical Surveillance. Medical surveillance is comprised of the following:
Pre-placement or baseline examinations. Designed to assess physical capabilities and limitations in relation to job requirements, and to document baseline data for future use in the evaluation of potential exposures of USGS personnel.
Special purpose periodic examinations. Conducted at pre-determined intervals to evaluate and document the health effects of occupational exposures.
Medical Surveillance Action Level. The minimum level of personnel exposure that determines the necessity for occupational health medical surveillance examinations.
Motorboat. Any watercraft 65 feet or less in length that does not require a U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) license or certification to operate.
Motorboat Operator. The individual in physical control of the watercraft.
Class A. Motorboat less than 16 feet in length.
Class 1. Motorboat 16 feet to less than 26 feet in length.
Class 2. Motorboat 26 feet to less than 40 feet in length.
Class 3. Motorboat 40 feet to 65 feet in length.
Motor Vehicle. A motorized conveyance used primarily for transporting people and materials over the highway. Forklift trucks and dozers, as well as other vehicles used primarily for materials handling, are not considered as motor vehicles.
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD’s). MSD’s include a number of injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, joints, bones and supporting blood vessels in the upper/lower extremities or back. Such injuries include back injuries, carpal tunnel syndrome, and Raynaud’s syndrome. These conditions are caused by ergonomic hazards in the workplace such as awkward positioning, repetition, force, mechanical compression, vibration, and duration of operation. MSD’s result from the cumulative effect of repeated trauma to a particular part of the body. Cumulative trauma occurs when rest or overnight sleep fails to completely heal these small “microtraumas” that carry over and adds to total effect on the body. Over time MSD’s can result in permanent damage or disability.
Netter. The individual who nets the captured fish during electrofishing operations.
Occupational Health Medical Surveillance Examination. An occupationally related medical history, physical examination, and a series of clinical laboratory tests that are performed to assess the health status of individuals.
Occupationally Related Medical History. An individual's medical background including occupational exposures, family health, and personal health.
Occupational Health Physician. A doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy who is licensed to practice medicine. The OHP should be certified by the American College of Occupational Medicine.
Oxygen Deficiency. An atmosphere that contains <19.5% of oxygen.
Personnel. Any USGS employee who may be occupationally exposed to potentially hazardous materials.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The term shall include, but is not limited to, devices designed to be worn by workers for eye, face, head, respiratory, hand, arm, body, leg, foot, and fall protection.
Physical Examinations. Physical assessments performed to determine fitness of an individual to perform work while evaluating evidence of acute and chronic injury and disease. These examinations should be performed by the Occupational Health Physician (OHP); however, other licensed health care professionals such as a registered nurse or a physician's assistant may perform the examinations if supervised by the OHP.
Power Control Circuit. The circuit that interconnects and adjusts the power from the pulsator or generator to the electrodes.
Preliminary Notice. A written notice to the Departmental Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO) by the involved Bureau of a serious accident as a follow-up to the initial telecommunications notification. The Preliminary Notice is forwarded within 48 hours of the accident and should contain only basic facts that are intended for information sharing purposes only.
Program. USGS’s Occupational Safety and Health Program as required by 485 DM and specified in USGS 445-2-H (this Handbook).
Program Goals. Short-term goals are those activities or levels of management performance associated with the Program to be accomplished within a year. Long-term goals are those expected to be accomplished within 5 years.
Public Health Service. The Public Health Service (PHS) is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that provides occupational health services to Federal employees.
Qualified Person. One who has received formal training and/or passed appropriate screening tests or has demonstrated competency that established the person’s ability to perform the task in a safe/healthful manner.
Rain Tight. Constructed or protected so that exposure to a beating rain will not result in the entrance of water.
Regulated Areas. Areas where entry and exit are restricted or controlled because of potential exposures to occupational or environmental hazards.
Reprisal. Any act of restraint, interference, coercion, or discrimination against an employee for exercising his/her rights under Executive Order 12196 and 29 CFR Part 1960 or for participating in the Program.
Safety and Health Inspector. An individual trained to identify the unsafe and unhealthful conditions and acts in a facility or related to an operation.
Safety and Health Professional. An individual who meets the requirements of Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulation TS-227.
Screening. The process (normally less formal than certification) of determining if an individual has the minimum knowledge, skill, and ability to perform a task(s) in a safe and healthful manner without continuous supervision.
Serious Accident. A fatality or imminently fatal injury or illness to an employee, or to any nonemployee as a result of Department-related activities; three or more persons hospitalized in a single occurrence; or $250,000 or more of property damage related to Departmental operations or facilities, including cleanup costs and damage caused while mitigating the initial accident.
Serious Accident Investigation Team. A team of at least four members, appointed by a Bureau DASHO with the assistance of the Bureau safety manager, chosen to investigate a serious accident and to report the accident facts and corresponding conclusions and recommendations.
Serious Wildland and Prescribed Fire-Related Accident. A serious accident that occurs during any wildland fire or prescribed fire activity or to personnel working in direct support of these activities.
Standards. Minimum requirements published by recognized authorities, Federal, State, or local government agencies, or by national consensus groups to which the Department is committed to implement where applicable.
Termination of Employment Physical Examinations. Examinations conducted when workers leave employment to assess the relationship of any future medical problems from an exposure in the workplace. Termination of exposure examinations are applicable when exposure to a specific hazard is removed. Exposures to specific hazards may cease when a worker is reassigned, a process is changed, or the individual leaves employment.
Tick-Infested Areas. Areas generally regarded to contain ticks, brushy, grassy (longer grasses) wooded areas, leaf litter, shrubs, etc.
Trained Investigator. An individual (or a private sector or governmental investigative agency) appointed by a Bureau Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO) to investigate a serious accident in lieu of a Bureau DASHO-appointed Serious Accident Investigation Team (SAIT). Trained Investigators meet the qualifications and training requirements for SAIT Chief Investigators. Additionally, specialized investigative agencies can be chosen specifically because of being qualified in the type of loss occurring.
Trained Person. One who has the knowledge, skill, and ability to recognize the hazards associated with the task and perform it in a safe and healthful manner.
Training. The process(es) of increasing an individual’s knowledge, skill, and ability to a predetermined level of competence.
Variable Voltage Pulsator Electro Shocker. The device used to deliver the pulsed electric current.
Watercraft. Boats and ships, collectively, including air boats, sailboats, and every description of watercraft, except seaplanes, which are used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water and are propelled by machinery whether or not such machinery is the principal source of propulsion.
Watertight. Constructed so that moisture will not enter the enclosure.
Weatherproof. Constructed/protected so that weather exposure will not interfere with operation.
Workplace. A physical location where agency work or operations are performed. Workplaces may be administrative, field, industrial, or laboratory.
Workplace Sampling. Air quality or other industrial hygiene services performed to measure personnel exposures to physical, chemical, or biological hazards. Sampling should be performed by an industrial hygienist or other safety and health professional.