U.S. Geological Survey Manual
SM 445-2-H CHAPTER 15
Job Hazard Analyses
Date: May 3, 2017
Instruction: This chapter is revised to address organizational changes and to reflect current guidance and responsibilities regarding Job Hazard Analyses (JHAs).
1. Purpose. To specify the minimum Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Program requirements for structuring and using job hazard analyses within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).
A. 485 Departmental Manual, Safety and Occupational Health Program, Chapter 14 Job Hazard Analyses.
B. Survey Manual (SM) 445-3-H Safety and Health for Field Operations Handbook, Topic 1, Job Hazard Analysis.
C. 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.132(d), General Requirements.
D. 29 CFR Subpart I Appendix B Non-mandatory Compliance Guidelines for Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment Selection.
A. Measures shall be in place to assess the workplace in order to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and/or higher level controls, (e.g., engineering or administrative).
B. A system shall be developed and managed by which major activities and individual jobs are analyzed regarding the following:
(1) The sequence of work.
(2) The hazards associated with the sequence (actions).
(3) The methods or safeguards to prevent, reduce, and/or control the identified hazard(s).
C. The following activities or circumstances are examples of where JHA techniques shall be used:
(1) Hazardous activities such as confined space entry.
(2) Bridge and boat measurements.
(3) Stream gage measurements over, in, around water or ice-covered locations, electrofishing, rocket netting, blasting, or using explosives.
(4) Travel over severe terrain or specialized motor vehicle use.
(5) Aircraft special use.
(6) Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus operations.
(7) Use of highly toxic, corrosive, reactive, or flammable materials.
(8) High voltage (>240 volts).
(10) High pressure or vacuum equipment.
D. Should an injury or illness occur during a task for which a JHA has already been prepared, then note the step on the JHA where the accident occurred and detail what changes shall be made to prevent the recurrence of a similar accident. Should an injury or illness occur during a task for which a JHA had not been prepared, the investigating Regional or Occupational Safety and Health Management Branch (OSHMB) Safety Manager and/or Accident Review Board shall determine the need for completion of a JHA for the operation by local management. After reporting the accident through the Safety Management Information System, the JHA shall be forwarded to the appropriate Regional or OSHMB Safety Manager.
E. To conduct a JHA, carefully study and record each step of a job and identify any existing or potential job hazards. Consult 29 CFR Subpart I Appendix B for hazard assessment guidance. For each identified hazard, determine what controls shall be used to eliminate the hazard, or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level. Preference shall be given to engineering controls first, administrative controls second, then to PPE last. Each JHA shall address the following elements:
(1) A breakdown of the job activity into steps. Describe what is done and not how it is done.
(2) Examine each job step to determine the hazards present.
(a) At a minimum, consider hazards due to impact, penetration, compression (e.g., rollover), chemicals, heat or cold, harmful dusts, radiation (e.g., radioactive materials, ultraviolet light, radiofrequency radiation), electricity, and ergonomic stressors.
(b) At a minimum, assess how the hazards may harm the head, eyes, face, hearing, lungs, hands, body, and feet.
(3) Evaluate each hazard to determine the cause and any factor that may contribute to creation of hazard.
(4) For each hazard identify corrective or preventive measures. Eliminate the source or cause of the hazard if possible. If the hazard cannot be eliminated identify engineering controls, improved procedures, personal protective equipment, and training requirements that shall help to control the hazard. Identified hazard controls shall be in place before work proceeds.
F. Each JHA may contain the following:
(1) A section describing unsafe conditions under which no operations shall be conducted.
(2) Conditions, if any, for which the wearing of a PPE is not required.
(3) Conditions, if any, when more than one employee is required to perform the operation.
(4) Emergency and rescue procedures, as applicable. An example of a few general rescue techniques is provided in Topic 21, Ice-Covered Rivers in SM 445-3-H Safety and Health for Field Operations Handbook. Additional generic JHAs by occupational job series that may be used as a starting point to modify for individual job functions.
(5) The location and telephone number of emergency medical and rescue facilities.
G. Each JHA shall be verified through a written certification that identifies the workplace evaluated; the person certifying that the evaluation has been performed; the date(s) of the hazard assessment; and which identifies the document as a certification of hazard assessment.
H. Examples of tools that may be used in developing job hazard analyses are listed below.
(1) The Personal Hazard Analysis system provides an automated tool to assist the supervisor and employee to identify hazards, control measures, written programs and procedures; and determine training requirements.
(2) JHA inclusion within Budget and Science Information System Plus allows project managers to budget for safety requirements such as training, safety equipment, exposure sampling, medical monitoring, and personal protective equipment Site Information Management System serves as a framework for information used by audiences ranging from hydrologists, hydrographers, managers and the bureau safety community. Site Hazard Analyses are included in the information supplied for each site.
A. Occupational Safety and Health Program Manager.
(1) Maintains a library of JHAs within the USGS and publishes it electronically for use by the regions and mission areas.
(2) Provides program oversight and periodically evaluates JHA effectiveness.
(3) Provides guidance and assistance to mission areas, offices, regional managers, supervisors and employees in implementing JHA requirements.
B. Regional or Occupational Safety and Health Branch Safety Managers.
(1) Provide technical assistance to Collateral Duty Safety Program Coordinators (CDSPCs) and Managers/Supervisors in review, conduct, and concurrence with locally developed JHAs.
(2) Forward JHAs for hazardous activities to the Occupational Safety and Health Manager for electronic publishing.
(3) Review JHAs during safety and health assessments to assess effectiveness and compliance.
(4) Track and ensure abatement of findings in the Inspection and Abatement System.
C. Science Center Directors, Cost Center Managers, and Project Chiefs.
(1) Identify all hazardous operations or activities under their control, develop and approve corresponding written JHAs. Ensure each JHA is verified through a written certification that identifies the workplace evaluated; the person certifying that the evaluation has been performed; the date(s) of the hazard assessment; and, which identifies the document as a certification of hazard assessment.
(2) Coordinate supervisor or manager review of all developed JHAs.
(3) Discuss the results of each JHA with affected personnel focusing on identified hazards and steps to be taken to reduce hazards prior to beginning the hazardous job activity.
(4) Provide or make accessible to all personnel engaged in hazardous activities written JHAs applicable to their occupation or activities.
(5) Maintain a file for all JHAs and provide a copy to the CDSPC.
(6) Review JHAs periodically and update whenever changes occur to the job.
D. Collateral Duty Safety Program Coordinators.
(1) Assist managers and supervisors in the development of the JHAs.
(2) Maintain a local file of JHAs for all activities and provide copies to the respective Regional Safety Manager or OSHMB Safety Manager.
(1) Comply with work regulations and procedures in the JHA, including the use of PPE.
(2) Report to their supervisors or CDSPC conditions that may warrant a JHA revision, e.g., new unsafe and/or unhealthful working conditions for a given job task or activity.
F. Contracting Officer’s Representative.
(1) When work is performed by contractors, the Contracting Officer’s Representative (COR) shall determine that the person in charge of the work has developed appropriate JHAs for the work to be performed. This information shall be provided to and accepted by the Contracting Officer (CO) or COR prior to permitting the contractor to proceed with the work.
(2) Coordinate contractor safety and health briefings with the CO when new procedures or changes are put in place involving compliance with safety and health requirements.
(3) Keep the CO apprised of safety or health related issues that have a direct impact on the oversight and/or performance of contracted work.
(4) Report violations cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to the CO and Regional or OSHMB Safety Manager to facilitate corrective actions.
Katie McCulloch for /s/Jose R. Aragon 5/03/2017
Jose R. Aragon Date
Designated Agency Safety and Health Official