U.S. Geological Survey Manual
CHAPTER 2. PHYSICAL SECURITY GUIDELINES
1. Background. The primary purpose of the guidelines contained in this chapter is to assist responsible managers, designated officials, and security officers in establishing appropriate physical security measures necessary to protect personnel, facilities, property, and information. Because of the variety of work places in the USGS, it is not appropriate to establish mandatory physical protection requirements for all environments. With the assistance of designated security officers, responsible officials must ds for USGS facilities using determine the security safeguards for USGS facilities using Appendix B, Department of the Interior (DOI) Facility Security Standards. Initially, the security level of the facility must be determined, which is based on the square footage of the facility, the number of occupants, mission, volume of public visitors, along with several other factors listed in Appendix B, DOI Facility Security Standards. Based on the security level of the facility, DOI provides minimum-security safeguards that must be met. Responsible officials may determine that additional safeguards are required based on an assessment of possible threats and vulnerabilities, including a review of past incidents at the facility and surrounding area.
A. Within DOI, the senior official having jurisdiction over an office, building, warehouse, or other facility is responsible for safeguarding personnel and real and personal property under the control of, or assigned to, the activity. Departmental Manual (DM) 444 DM 1 establishes basic physical security policy guidelines applicable to all departmental buildings and facilities and supplements the General Services Administration (GSA) regulations published in FPMR 101-20.1, which establishes physical protection and building security for properties under custody and control of GSA.
B. The prescribed policies for management of USGS personal property and the responsibility of designated property officers are contained in SM 408.2. Detailed procedures for accountability and responsibility, including record keeping, transfer of accountability, relief of accountability, property removal permits, theft or vandalism reporting, etc., are contained in the Property Management Handbook (408-2-H).
C. The policy for safeguarding information classified as national security information under Executive Order 12958 and prior orders is set forth in SM 440.3 and the National Security Handbook (440-3-H). To ensure the security and confidentiality of Privacy Act records, SM 319.1 assigns system managers with the responsibility for establishing and maintaining appropriate administrative, technical, and physical security safeguards. SM 500.14 establishes policies and requirements for safeguarding and releasing USGS information and proprietary information received from private sources.
A. Perfect or absolute security is always the goal of those responsible for security of a facility or activity, but such a state of absolute security can never be fully obtained. There is no object so well protected that it cannot be stolen, damaged, destroyed, or observed by unauthorized individuals. A balanced security system provides protection against a defined set of threats by informing the user of attempted intrusions and providing resistance to the would-be intruder's attack paths. This resistance must be consistent around the entire perimeter of the protected area.
B. There are four main security elements that must be properly integrated in order to achieve a proper balance of physical security. They are:
(1) Detection. This is the process of detecting and locating intruders as far from the protected areas as feasible. Early detection gives the user more time for effective alarm assessment and execution of pre-planned response.
(2) Assessment. Assessment is determining the cause of the alarm or recognizing the activity. This must be done as soon as possible after detection to prevent the intruder's position from being lost.
(3) Delay. Intruders must be delayed long enough to prevent them from achieving their objectives before the response force can interdict them.
(4) Response. A response force must be available, equipped, and trained to prevent the intruders from achieving their objective. The response time must be less than the delay time if the response force is to intercept the intruders before they achieve their objective.