Base Map

USGS does not currently offer vector downloads in bulk other than by special request only.
Vector data for small scales are from The National Map Small-Scale Collection (formerly National Atlas), while medium to large scales are comprised of The National Map themes, to incl
Composite base maps have cached tiles to cover the whole world, but only for oceans, continents and countries at smaller scales.  Larger view scales have detailed data for the conterminous U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, U.S.
No, but additional features in The National Map are found in dynamic services. Expand the Overlays pane above the Content sub-tab, expand individual Base Data Layers by clicking on the + signs, and select which additional features you may want
The National Map offers a series of composite base maps, which combine layers into tile cache services with the cartographic richness of multiple data sources. The following base maps are available:
A tiled service contains cached tiles, which render the map in small tile images. This allows the map to perform much faster when panning and zooming, compared to a dynamic service.
File sizes to store tiles increase 4x with each zoom scale when building a cache for a tiled base map service.  The storage size required to cache data at scales larger than 1:18,000 is greater than USGS can currently store.  For example, just to store
Yes, visit The National Map-Service Endpoints list.  There are REST and WMS links in addition to a Google Earth link at the top of each REST service URL.
USGS cartographers first leveraged cartographic decisions made for the USGS 1:24,000/1:25,000-scale map series requirements, and for the new US Topo product using diverse landscape sample areas, such as varying densities of features, rural vs.
USGS cartographers compared older USGS 1:100,000- and 1:250,000-scale map series requirements, and for smaller scales, they compared popular base maps already in use.