Volcano Hazards

On May 18, 1980, at Mount St.
Yes. Crater lakes atop volcanoes are typically the most acid, with pH values as low as 0.1 (very strong acid). Normal lake waters, in contrast, have relatively neutral pH values near 7.0.
Yes. Encounters between aircraft and clouds of volcanic ash are a serious concern.
Not usually. Earthquakes associated with eruptions rarely exceed magnitude 5, and these moderate earthquakes are not generally big enough to destroy buildings, houses, and roads. The largest earthquakes at Mount St.
Lahars are commonly initiated by:
Lahars can be of any size. They may be as small as several centimeters wide and deep, flowing less than one meter per second.
Pyroclastic flows can be extremely destructive and deadly because of their high temperature and mobility.
Volcanic eruptions are one of Earth's most dramatic and violent agents of change.