Coordinates

Most survey marks were set by the US Coast & Geodetic Survey (now called the National Geodetic Survey) and information for those marks is available on the web.
For more information, please go to the Download and Cart Web page.
If coordinates are to be passed on to another person it is technically necessary to report the horizontal datum and the latitude/longitude of the point (e.g.
The State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) is a plane coordinate system (N-S and E-W lines are perpendicular) in which each individual state has from one to six zones, depending on the state's size and shape.
Generally, for the conterminous United States, the North American Datum (NAD) shift amounts to about 210 meters. This shift occurs because of the change in shape of the spheroid used to define the datum.
Each National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) frame covers a 5-by-5 mile area at 1:40,000 scale. Each National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) color infrared (CIR) frame covers an 8-by-8 mile area at 1:58,000 scale.
We generally emphasize the following four points:
UTM is the acronym for Universal Transverse Mercator, a plane coordinate grid system named for the map projection on which it is based (Transverse Mercator). The UTM system consists of 60 zones, each 6-degrees of longitude in width.
Focal length is the distance from the middle of the camera lens to the focal plane (i.e. the film). As focal length increases, image distortion decreases. The focal length is precisely measured when the camera is calibrated.
The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S.