Remote sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance from the targeted area.
The majority of USGS aircraft photography is used for cartographic purposes. Image distortion is minimized when photographs are acquired looking straight down or vertically. 
Yes.  Scanning of the EROS film archives is following a plan to capture images from rolls at risk of decay from vinegar syndrome.
The high resolution orthophoto and the Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle (DOQ) provides the most detail. You would probably be able to identify your neighborhood.
The Photographic Library, located in Denver, Colorado, is an archive of still photographs dating from the 1870’s and taken by USGS scientists as part of their field studies.
The USGS has placed online a number of images taken by some of the photographers who worked for or otherwise accompanied the "Great Surveys of the American West."
Proposals to change the name of a natural feature may be submitted to the U.S. Board on Geographic Names as described below. However, there must be a compelling reason.
The GNIS contains named communities, both incorporated and unincorporated, but these communities do not necessarily correspond to ZIP Code areas. ZIP Codes are unofficial entities developed and maintained by the U.S.