Hydraulic Fracturing ("Fracking")

The most well-known targets of hydraulic fracturing are tight formations, such as tight sands, coal beds, and shale formations. Maps from the U.S.
Hydraulic fracturing (sometimes referred to as “fracking”) is a common part of the oil and gas well completion process that typically involves injecting water, sand or ceramic beads, and chemicals under high pressure into a oil or gas reservoir via the
In general, hydraulic fracturing fluid is composed of water, proppant (typically sand), and chemicals.  A public Web site known as FracFocus has b
The USGS performs a wide variety of research relating to the Nation’s resources.  This includes research related to the formation, occurrence, and development of unconven
Hydraulic fracturing in vertical wells has been used for over half a century to improve the flow of oil and gas from conventional reservoirs.
Hydraulic fracturing is used in many established oil and gas producing regions of the country as well as some areas new to the petroleum industry. Maps of major shale gas, tight gas, and tight oil basins are available from the U.S.
The states regulate many aspects of oil and gas exploration and production. Federal land managers, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the U.S.
Prior to the recent widespread use of directional drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other enabling technologies, petroleum geologists and engineers were aware that oil and gas resources were present in “tight” or impermeable formations such as shale.