On March 31, 2013, China announced that a novel strain of avian influenza virus [A(H7N9)] was causing severe illness and death in humans, but was not causing illness in the few birds found to be infected by the virus. Because some birds migrate between continents, a concern was raised that wild birds infected with this virus in China might migrate to the United States and bring this virus with them. This influenza virus is new and very unusual because it does not cause disease in chickens (low pathogenic avian influenza virus - LPAIV) but the respiratory disease it causes in humans can be severe, often fatal. Not enough is known about the virus to answer all of the questions, but U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science was used to build a model showing that the risk of this virus moving to the United States by migratory birds was low at this time.
Recent studies by USGS scientists are helping provide some understanding of the movement and genetic mixing of avian influenza (AI) viruses in birds in Asia and North America. The studies listed here conclude that AI viruses from Asia likely change their genetic makeup either as they move in their avian hosts from Asia to North America or upon arrival in North America. No completely Asian-origin AI viruses have been detected in North American birds, but numerous viruses of mixed genetic backgrounds, both Asian and North American, have been identified. These studies illustrate the significant role that migratory bird breeding grounds in Russia and Alaska play in this important family of viruses. The breeding grounds are mixing areas not only for bird populations but also for the AI viruses they may carry.
In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term network and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors reported on river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers, informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis.
Immediately following Hurricane Sandy, the USGS developed a science plan to coordinate continuing USGS activities with other agencies and to guide continued data collection and analysis to ensure support for recovery and restoration efforts. The plan is titled "Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy—A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery". Data, information, and tools produced by implementing this plan will: (1) further characterize impacts and changes, (2) guide mitigation and restoration of impacted communities and ecosystems, (3) inform a redevelopment strategy aimed at developing resilient coastal communities and ecosystems, (4) improve preparedness and responsiveness to the next hurricane or similar coastal disaster, and (5) enable improved hazard assessment, response, and recovery for future storms along the hurricane prone shoreline of the United States.
The activities outlined in this plan are organized in five themes.
A major emphasis for implementation of the plan is interacting with stakeholders to better understand their specific data and information needs; this understanding will help define the best way to make information available and also support the application of USGS science and expertise to decisionmaking.
USGS scientists have developed a new approach for helping people understand the risk of exposure to arsenic, a common drinking-water contaminant in New Hampshire. The approach consists of a set of models that predict the probability of arsenic occurring in the groundwater within bedrock aquifers at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L). The U.S Environmental Protection Agency has set the standard for arsenic in public drinking water to 10 µg/L—known as the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)—to protect people served by public-water systems from the effects of long-term exposure to arsenic. The new models were developed for the New Hampshire Environmental Public Health Tracking Program, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded program designed to help connect the dots between environmental hazards and health outcomes. The models are available to the public, public health scientists, and others. to. The models can help identify parts of the State at risk for high levels of arsenic in drinking water, and support studies related to human health. The statewide maps generated from the models are not designed to predict arsenic concentraion in any single well, but they are expected to provide useful information in areas of the State that currently contain little to no data on arsenic concentration.
USGS scientists estimate that approximately 39 percent of groundwater in New Hampshire bedrock has at least a 50-percent chance of containing an arsenic concentration greater than or equal to 1 µg/L. This compares to about 5 percent of the State having at least a 50-percent chance of having an arsenic concentration at or above 10 µg/L. Not surprisingly, significant predictors of arsenic in groundwater from bedrock aquifers included geology, water chemistry, land use, hydrology, topography, and demographic factors. The models predict that the probability of arsenic greater than 1 µg/L is widespread throughout the State.
The scientists used more than 1,700 measurements of arsenic concentration from a combination of public and private water-supply wells to develop the models. The approach may aid public health officials determine the risk of human exposure and potential health effects of exposure to arsenic from private drinking-water wells.
The study was supported under grant number #1U38EH000947-02 from the National Center for Environmental Health at the CDC in Atlanta. The USGS Cooperative Water Program also provided funding for the study.
Coal-tar-based sealcoat—a product marketed to protect and beautify asphalt pavement—is a potent source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to air, soils, streams and lakes, and homes. PAHs are a group of hundreds of organic chemicals, many of which are probable carcinogens. A new study by Baylor University and USGS scientists indicates that living adjacent to coal-tar-sealed pavement is associated with an increase in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk, much of which occurs during early childhood.
Coal-tar-based sealant is the black liquid sprayed or painted on many parking lots, driveways, and playgrounds, and is used primarily in the central, southern, and eastern United States. Coal-tar sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 different PAHs. Friction from vehicle tires grinds pavement sealcoat into small particles, which are transported by wind, rain, and snowplows to nearby soil, and some are tracked into homes where they become part of household dust.
Incidental ingestion of soil and house dust is an exposure pathway to many chemicals, especially for children. Using data collected by USGS scientists a Baylor University scientist estimated that the lifetime dose of carcinogenic PAHs for someone living adjacent to coal-tar-sealcoated pavement was 38 times greater than for someone living adjacent to unsealed asphalt pavement, and half of that dose occurs during childhood (0 to 6 years of age). For the average person who lives adjacent to coal-tar-sealed pavement for a lifetime, the excess cancer risk is estimated to be greater than 1 in 10,000, a level which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers to be a risk factor sufficiently large that remediation is desirable.
This project was funded by the University of Baylor and the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program.
USGS scientists find that the natural attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in New Jersey significantly adds to the effectiveness of site cleanup operations. An active pump-and-treat cleanup system is presently removing about 630 kilograms of TCE per year (kg/yr) at the site. Naturally occurring biodegradation processes remove an additional 500 kg/yr. Natural TCE biodegradation is a welcome addition to overall cleanup operations at this site because it does not incur the economic costs of a pump-and-treat system, and will accelerate cleanup.
A team of USGS scientists working at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Research Site in West Trenton, New Jersey, estimated TCE biodegradation rates by combining 20-years worth of data on the concentrations of two degradation products of TCE and chloride from observation wells with estimates of rock porosities and groundwater residence times. The methodology that the scientists used to estimate the natural attenuation of TCE in fractured rock is now available to be applied at other fractured bedrock sites. Fractured bedrock is widely regarded by environmental professionals as being particularly difficult to clean up because residual pure TCE can be distributed in fractures and TCE diffuses from the fractures into the surrounding rock. Once the TCE is in the surrounding rock it only diffuses back out very slowly. Therefore, this new methodology has the potential to help assess the role of natural attenuation at fractured bedrock contamination sites.
The amount of organic material stored on an aquifer's sediments can slow down natural processes that are often relied on to restore groundwater quality in a wastewater-contaminated aquifer. A team of USGS scientists found that analysis of sediment cores is an important part of developing reliable predictions for how long groundwater restoration will take. This observation resulted from a long-term study of a wastewater plume on Cape Cod, Massachusetts that is taking much longer to return to cleaner conditions than the scientists initially predicted. The ability to predict how long restoration will take is often the basis for decisions about whether or not to rely on monitored natural attenuation to remediate contaminated sites.
The scientists conducted long-term detailed sampling of groundwater and sediment from the wastewater plume. In the 15 years since wastewater disposal was stopped, the dissolved oxygen concentration has not returned to pristine levels near the disposal site, even though conservative chemicals in the wastewater such as chloride and boron have been flushed from the area. The scientists estimate that the return of dissolved oxygen to the aquifer, even near the disposal site, could take decades depending on the amount of biodegradable organic compounds that remain stored on the sediments from past disposal.
USGS scientists are helping the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc. understand sources and exposure pathways for an unusual outbreak of childhood lead poisoning linked to artisanal gold mining in northern Nigeria. By the summer 2010 the outbreak had killed hundreds young children and affected thousands more. At the request of the CDC, the USGS analyzed samples of raw and processed ore, contaminated soils, dust and loose soils from eating areas in family compounds, and grain foodstuffs from local markets.
USGS analyses showed that:
These findings helped CDC determine that incidental ingestion of soils via hand-mouth transmission and inhalation of dusts are the dominant exposure pathways by which children develop acute lead poisoning. Consumption of contaminated water and foodstuffs are lesser but significant exposure pathways. Older children, pregnant women, and adult workers are also at substantial risk for lead poisoning.
The USGS results indicate that other areas occur globally where artisanal mining of specific ore deposit types could enhance the potential for similar lead poisoning. Funding for the USGS component of the study was provided by the USGS Mineral Resources Program.
Field-based approaches developed by a team of USGS scientists have been used to evaluate strategies for the mitigation of acid mine drainage. The approaches were used to estimate post-cleanup water quality in two streams impacted by abandoned mines in Colorado and to identify the major sources of contamination in another Colorado stream. The approaches include prescribed field studies that are analyzed and interpreted using computer simulation models.
Funding for these studies was provided by the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cooperation with the Animas River Stakeholders Group, San Juan County, Colorado, and the San Juan Resource Conservation and Development Program helped make the studies possible.
Aquatic organisms, such as insect larva and snails, living on the bottom of streams can directly absorb copper in mineral particles that are in the food they eat. Scientists have known that some organisms absorb metals from their food. Now it seems that the mineral particles in stream water and sediment are a potentially important source of metals to sediment dwellers and the food web.
USGS scientists developed methods to investigate how the chemical properties of mineral particles consumed by aquatic organisms affect the absorption of metals. The new methods use isotopically enriched metals as tracers to measure metal absorption during feeding experiments with freshwater organisms, such as the larva of mayflies (Serratella tibialis). The scientists developed a novel reverse labeling technique, which involves artificially enriching the test organisms with a rare isotope of the metal under study rather than adding the tracer to the natural mineral particles to be tested. Subsequent exposure to the element from the natural source particles shifts the isotopic ratio of the element in the test organism from the rare isotope to the natural isotope as the natural isotope is absorbed. The scientists can then measure the absorption of the metals from natural particles by measuring how much of the natural isotope replaces the rare isotope in the organism. This eliminates the need to alter the natural particles for the test.
This new technique will provide important information for regulators, resource managers, and scientists addressing contamination with metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage.
USGS scientists assessed the potential for offsite migration of radionuclides from an active uranium mill site near White Mesa, Utah. The mill site is currently the only conventional uranium mill operating in the United States. The scientists sampled groundwater, stream sediments, and plants to determine what the implications might be for offsite migration of contaminants from the mill site.
Uranium concentrations in sediment from three intermittent (ephemeral) streams east of the mill boundary exceeded natural background levels. Wind-blown dusts are a potential source of uranium contamination in two springs. Elevated concentrations of uranium and vanadium in sagebrush samples collected north-northeast, east, and south of the mill site also were suspected to be the result of wind-blown dust deposited on the pants and/or from dust transported to soil near the plants where it's taken up by the plants.
Measuring uranium concentrations in various environmental media provided added insights into uranium sources and exposure pathways. Based on the results of their study, the scientists proposed potential monitoring strategies to stakeholders.
The USGS conducted the study at the request of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe. Funding for the study was provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, and USGS Cooperative Water Program.
Scientists studying the transformation of uranium in subsurface sediments at a site with uranium contamination have discovered multiple pathways for the chemical reactions that transform hexavalent uranium [U(VI)], which is soluble and mobile in groundwater, to more insoluble forms of tetravalent uranium [U(IV)]. The multiple reaction pathways can take place concurrently. Unfortunately, some forms of U(IV) are not as insoluble as others, and it is important for cleanup professionals to know which forms are present at contamination sites. This information could lead to improved cleanup methods that involve the transformation of soluble U(VI) to insoluble forms of U(IV), such as the mineral uraninite (UO2). The objective of such remediation is to stabilize uranium plumes or to immobilize uranium in place.
A team of scientists from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland; and Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, showed that transformations of U(VI) to U(IV) in subsurface sediments can result in the formation of more than one form of U(IV)—at the same time and in the same location. The most desired from of U(IV) is the mineral uraninite, because it is insoluble and is less likely to move in groundwater, which makes it the preferred end point for groundwater cleanup. Other forms of U(IV) the scientists studied are more soluble than uraninite, and could conceivably be re-dissolved if the chemistry of the groundwater changes in the future, which could undo cleanup actions. The study findings also have direct implications not only for our understanding of uranium cleanup approaches (such as bioremediation systems) but for our understanding of the geology of uranium ore formation and our understanding of global geochemical processes.
This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, USGS National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, Swiss National Science Foundation, Marie Curie Grant Program, and National Institutes of Health.
USGS scientists, collaborating with U.S. and Ukrainian scientists, found high concentrations of mercury and arsenic in soils from the Donets Basin, a metal-rich coal-mining region in eastern Ukraine. Soils near mines and mining areas can become contaminated, and humans can be exposed to contaminants in a number of ways. For example, leaching of contaminants into groundwater used for drinking water, uptake contaminants by crop plants, and unintentional ingestion of contaminated soils. The scientists collected soils from industrial areas as well as playgrounds and public spaces. Analysis confirmed that more than 90 percent of the soils collected from Ukrainian residential areas exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency soil screening level for arsenic. Leaching studies predicted that the arsenic in the soil had potentially more potential to be absorbed or ingested by humans than mercury.
Mercury in local soil and dust vacuumed from carpets in homes were both good predictors of blood and urinary mercury. The results of this study show the extent of environmental contamination in this region and how exposure to the contaminated soil could impact the residents. This study was supported, in part, by a U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation Cooperative Grant and the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology, Hydrologic Research and Development, and Energy Resources Programs.
Tree swallows accumulate higher concentrations of mercury in their blood when they live on lakes with low pH than on lakes with more neutral-pH water. A team of USGS, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency scientists came to this conclusion after studying tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on eleven northern Wisconsin lakes with differing pH levels. The study was designed to assess the effects of lake pH on the accumulation of mercury and other trace elements in tree swallows and common loons (Gavia immer). Predictions of mercury exposure to wildlife based on water-quality and other nonbiological data are difficult because of complicated chemical and biological processes affecting how mercury is absorbed and processed by wildlife.
The scientists also gathered data on mercury exposure in loons and used the data to determine whether mercury exposure in swallows could be used to predict loon mercury exposure. Predictions, rather than direct sampling of loons, may be desirable because loons may not nest on all lakes where data are needed or they may be difficult to sample.
Although mercury exposure was approximately 15 times higher in loon eggs than in swallow eggs, there was a reasonably good association between the two species. Sampling the blood of tree swallows in addition to loons may enhance the assessment of the relative risk of mercury exposure to common loons, allowing wildlife scientists to cover a greater area with less cost. Mercury continues to be a contaminant of concern because source control remains difficult.
The USGS Contaminant Biology Program, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided funding for this study.
For more than a decade, predictive models have been used by public-health agencies for water-quality assessments of coastal recreational waters (such as swimming beaches on Lake Erie), but the effectiveness of the models has not been studied in inland waters. These new models address small inland lakes for the first time.
USGS scientists have developed predictive models that provide daily estimates of recreational water quality for swimming beaches on small lakes in Ohio. Traditionally, swim advisories or closings are issued by beach managers based on counts of indicator bacteria in water samples. This method takes at least 18 to 24 hours to complete and recreational water-quality may change during this time, leading to errors in assessments of public-health risk. The new predictive models use easily measured environmental and water-quality variables to estimate bacterial-indicator concentrations or the probability of exceeding target concentrations.
To develop the models, USGS scientists collected data from eight lakes during the recreational seasons of 2010 and 2011. They then constructed computer models for 13 swimming beaches. Some of the variables included in models at inland lake beach sites were rainfall, wind direction and speed, turbidity (a measure of the clarity of the water), and water temperature.
Predictive models at lakes with high swimmer densities provided better estimates of public health risk than the bacterial count methods currently used. Model results were not effective at some beaches because different climatic conditions occurred during the model development (very moist and moderate drought). Additional years of data collection during seasons with a variety of weather conditions may remedy this. These models will be a valuable resource for beach managers and the public.
The Ohio Water Development Authority, USGS Cooperative Water Program, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development provided support for this study. The Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District, Clark County Combined Health District, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, and City of Celina Water Plant provided services that helped advance the study.
Despite being restored for over 5 years, the chemistry and biology of a historic wetland between the Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in Oregon is still in transition. Scientists from the USGS and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation say the study area has not yet returned to the more natural state of a nearby wetland refuge.
The wetland had been drained and was used for agricultural production for seven decades. Explosive charges were used to remove large sections of multiple levees, which reconnected the former wetlands to the lakes and allowed water to flow into the wetlands again. One of the goals for the reconnection was to create additional habitat for wildlife, including two endangered fish species. Wildlife and water-resource managers were concerned about how long the recovery of the historic wetland would take.
Scientists monitored the water quality of the new wetland and also tracked the amount of nutrients (nitrate, ammonia, phosphorus) and metals (iron, manganese) moving in and out of the wetland sediments. They also monitored colonizing organisms, such as worms, leeches, and insect larvae that live on the bottom of the wetland. After 3 years, they found some things, such as dissolved organic matter and the community of organisms living on the bottom, had returned to levels and populations seen in much of Upper Klamath Lake. However, other essential elements, such as phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and manganese, will take more time, perhaps even decades to return to a natural state.
The information provided by the scientists on the timescales and the interdependent processes involved in the restoration of the wetland will help resource managers develop appropriate management plans, as well as set appropriate expectations for the chemical, physical, and biological transitions associated with wetland restoration.
This study is being followed by an extended 5-year study of the entire Upper Klamath Lake to continue to look at how conditions on the bottom of the lake affect overall lake water quality. The USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology and Hydrologic Research and Development Programs and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation funded this study.
Natural processes such as dilution, chemical transformations, and microbial degradation are known to reduce concentrations of some contaminants from streams to below levels that can cause harm to aquatic organisms. USGS scientists, however, have shown that some chemicals discharged from municipal wastewater treatment facilities persist for miles downstream at levels known, or suspected, to cause adverse health effects in aquatic organisms—including endocrine disruption in fish. The scientists also found that these persistent chemicals occur in complex mixtures. The effect of these complex mixtures on the health of aquatic animals is unknown.
The scientists tracked water on two streams (Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa) as it flowed downstream from the point of wastewater discharge. The scientists then collected water samples from the same water as it moved downstream for analysis of a wide range of organic chemicals common in wastewater. Many of the chemicals showed little decrease in concentration downstream, other than that caused by dilution, as they flowed down the 6- to 8-mile segments of the two streams studied. Significantly, some of these contaminants persisted at concentrations that are known, or suspected, to cause sublethal health effects in exposed organisms.
Chemicals, such as steroidal hormones that mimic estrogen and could have additive effects were found in the chemical mixtures. The estrogen mimics and other chemicals could have multiple health effects that are additive.
Legacy contaminants (chemicals no longer approved for use) and contaminants of emerging concern that persist in the environment are affecting the health of wildlife and fish in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. Many State agencies in the Chesapeake Bay watershed continue to report impaired water resources due to the persistence and toxicity of some previously banned pollutants. In addition, other contaminants of emerging concern are released to the environment at levels known, or suspected, to harm the health of fish and wildlife. These findings are documented in a recent report on toxic contaminants in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. The report is the result of an assessment of the Bay done by a team of scientists and managers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hampton Roads Sanitation District of Virginia, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The team reviewed State water-quality assessment reports, agency documents, and the peer-reviewed literature to summarize the state of knowledge about contaminants in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This study is the first review of a comprehensive group of contaminants (including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal-care products, hormones, and others) that were scientifically evaluated for the watershed. The report will be used to help the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership make decisions about strategies to minimize the impact of contaminants on the environmental health of the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI), Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression in colaboration with the USGS, looked for evidence of glucocorticoid and androgenic activity in streams. Glucocoricoids and androgens are both potential endocrine disruptors. Scientists tested water samples using a new cell-based bioassay that identified molecular responses triggered by the presence of glucocorticoids and androgens in natural stream water. They found glucocorticoid and androgen activity in 27 and 35 percent of the water samples, respectively, potentially indicating the widespread occurrence of these hormones in U.S. streams.
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones commonly referred to as "stress hormones," are known for their potential to decrease immune responses. Glucocorticoid-based pharmaceuticals (prednisone and hydrocortisone, for example) are widely prescribed to relieve inflammation. Androgens are anabolic steroids that affect the development and maintenance of male characteristics as well as other physiological functions. Depending on the timing of exposure, these glucocorticoids and androgens can have significant endocrine-disrupting effects, but unlike estrogenic chemicals, not much is known about their occurrence in the environment.
USGS scientists provided extracts for testing from more than 100 water samples from streams and rivers located in 14 States. The testing method the NCI researchers developed allowed them to detect the activation of cell receptors or genes that respond specifically to glucocorticoids or androgens. Activation of the fluorescently tagged cell receptors led visual evidence of the presence of glucocorticoids or androgens in the samples of stream water. Other molecular methods were used to confirm that specific genes were turned on.
Considering that both glucocorticoids and androgens influence body development and metabolism, and have the potential to influence normal reproductive, endocrine, and immune system function, their presence in the environment has potential implications for wildlife and human health.
Contaminants including hormones, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals have been detected at fish nesting sites in the Potomac River watershed where smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were found with evidence of endocrine disruption, such as intersex (having both female and male characteristics). Although these contaminants are known to originate from a variety of animal and human-waste sources, results of a recent USGS study support previous studies suggesting that seasonal runoff from agricultural activities could be an important source of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals by smallmouth bass during their early life stages, including eggs, larvae, and hatchlings (fry).
USGS scientists collected bed sediment and water samples from sites where smallmouth bass spawn and build nests in the Potomac River watershed. The samples were analyzed for a wide range of chemicals including those that are suspected endocrine disruptors. The scientists also studied adult fish collected from the nesting sites. This study and others will help resource managers and others determine factors contributing to abnormal fish health, such as intersex, observed in this region.
The Toxic Substances Hydrology, Contaminant Biology, Priority Ecosystems Science, and Fisheries: Aquatic and Endangered Resources Programs of the USGS supported this study. Funding was also provided by the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Virginia Departments of Game and Inland Fisheries and Environmental Quality, and Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
USGS scientists have documented the occurrence of several previously unreported fungicides in water and sediment in streams located near farm fields. Fungicides are used to control the outbreak of persistent plant diseases, which are a concern across the Nation because they can significantly reduce crop yields. Although more than 3,600 pesticide products containing fungicides are currently registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, few studies have investigated the occurrence or potential effects of fungicides in the environment.
A recent USGS study has shown that many fungicides are transported from areas of intense use to nearby streams and groundwater. In many case the fungicides are found at concentrations that may be a concern for environmental health. Currently, limited toxicological information is available on the effects of fungicides on beneficial fungi, which are important to stream ecosystems. USGS scientists tested water and sediment from three geographic areas (Presque Isle, Maine; Parma, Idaho; and Hancock, Wisconsin) where fungicides are used intensively. They found at least one fungicide in 75 percent of the surface waters sampled and in 58 percent of the groundwater wells sampled. They also found at least two fungicides in 55 percent of the bed sediment samples and in 83 percent of the suspended sediment samples that were collected.
The results of this study indicate the importance of including fungicides in pesticide-monitoring programs, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. This study will provide additional information to regulators and water-resource managers about the occurrence of fungicides in the environment across the Nation.
The USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program provided the funding for this study.
USGS scientist David Walters and his U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborators won a Level 1 Scientific and Technological Achievement Award (STAA)—the highest research award given out by EPA. Criteria for these annual awards include scientific or technological research of exceptionally high quality, of national significance, of high impact on a broad area of science/technology, and recognizable as a major scientific/technological achievement within its field of study.
Results of the study "Identifying Mechanisms of Contaminant Bioaccumulation and Developing Indicators of Ecosystem Recovery" were published in Environmental Science and Technology and in Ecological Applications. The scientists identified mechanisms of contaminant exposure in aquatic organisms and then explored how this exposure propagates into food webs via the emergence of adult insects from contaminated aquatic ecosystems. Insects emerging from aquatic habitats affect the distribution, abundance, production, and diversity of predators. Contaminants, aquatic insects, and their predators interact in two important ways:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided the funds for the team's study.
MEDGEO 2013 is sponsored by the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA), Geology and Health Division of the Geological Society of America (GSA), American Geosciences Institute, and the USGS. The conference will feature a wide variety of topics related to the intersection of human health and the natural environment. Technical sessions at the conference include:
143rd Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society will feature information on the managing and understanding of fisheries of all kinds. The meeting's theme is "Preparing for the Challenges Ahead." Scientists from the USGS will present information on aquatic organisms and aquatic habitats that can help natural resource managers and decision makers do their job. USGS environmental health science will also be featured at the meeting. The following are selected sessions where presentations on USGS environmental health science will be given.
The Wildlife Society will be holding is annual conference in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 5-10, 2013. The conference will feature information on wildlife conservation challenges. The following environmental health related symposia and workshops are part of the conference.
Resource managers, scientists, coastal planners, local officials, and interest groups will attend this joint conference to present research and to work together to improve and protect Great Lakes beaches and Lake Michigan. The conference will feature several sessions on environmental health science topics.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) annual meeting features a broad array of special technical sessions, field trips, short courses, and special lectures. USGS scientists are presenting a wide variety of information on USGS science, including environmental health science. The meeting will feature several sessions on environmental health science topics. Selected examples follow:
The American Public Health Association (APHA) annual meeting addresses current and emerging health science, policy, and practice issues with the goal to prevent disease and promote health. The theme of the meeting is Think Global Act Local—Best Practices Around the World.
The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Annual Meeting's theme is Harmonizing Science Across Disciplines. The meeting covers environmental health related topics such as aquatic toxicology and ecology, ecological risk assessment, environmental or analytical chemistry, and terrestrial or wildlife toxicology and ecology. USGS scientists present their environmental health research at many of the meeting's sessions. The following are some selected examples of sessions related to environmental health:
The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) annual fall meeting will cover a wide range of environmental health science topics. The meeting will also feature several themed sessions, called SWIRLs, to promote interdisciplinary collaboration. This meeting's SWIRLS are (1) Characterizing Uncertainty, (2) Dust and Aerosols, (3) Computational Methods across Scales: from Personal to High Performance Platforms, (4) Global Soils, and (5) Urban Systems. The following are a few of the special sessions that are related to environmental health—many of which are going to be convened by USGS scientists.
The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) will host the 14th annual National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment. The theme of the conference is "Building Climate Solutions." The conference will be attended by professionals from the fields of natural and social sciences, humanities and engineering, government and policy, business and civil society. A plenary session will be held on Agriculture and Natural Resources: Food Security, Ecological Integrity, and Ecosystem Services on Land and in the Ocean. USGS environmental health science has been presented at past conferences.
USGS scientists are helping organize the EmCon 2014 conference, which is planned to feature research on emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, nanoparticles, and their many degradation products in the environment. USGS scientists have presented information on environmental health science and emerging contaminants at past conferences.
Topical themes for the conference will include:
Maruya, K.A., Dodder, N.G., Weisberg, S.B., Gregorio, D., Bishop, J.S., Klosterhaus, S., Alvarez, D.A., Furlong, E.T., Bricker, S., Kimbrough, K.L., and Lauenstein, G.G., 2013, The Mussel Watch California pilot study on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)—Synthesis and next steps: Marine Pollution Bulletin, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.04.023.
Morman, S.A., and Plumlee, G.S., 2013, The role of airborne mineral dusts in human disease: Aeolian Research, doi:10.1016/j.aeolia.2012.12.001.
Alvarez, D.A., Maruya, K.A., Dodder, N.G., Lao, W., Furlong, E.T., and Smalling, K.L., 2013, Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern along the California coast (2009-10) using passive sampling devices: Marine Pollution Bulletin, no. 0, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.04.022.
Barber, L.B., 2013, Water reuse and emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment, in Ahuja, S., ed., Comprehensive Water Quality and Purification: Elsevier, ISBN:9780123821829.
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Windham-Myers, L., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Kakouros, E., Agee, J.L., Kieu, L.H., Stricker, C.A., Fleck, J.A., and Ackerman, J.T., 2013, Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands of California, USA—Seasonal influences of vegetation on mercury methylation, storage, and transport: Science of the Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.027.
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Bradbury, K.R., Borchardt, M.A., Gotkowitz, M., Spencer, S.K., Zhu, J., and Hunt, R.J., 2013, Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 9, p. 4096-4103, doi:10.1021/es400509b.
Bradford, S.A., Morales, V.L., Zhang, W., Harvey, R.W., Packman, A.I., Mohanram, A., and Welty, C., 2013, Transport and fate of microbial pathogens in agricultural settings: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 8, p. 775-893, doi:10.1080/10643389.2012.710449.
Bradley, P.M., 2013, Current perspectives in contaminant hydrology and water resources sustainability: InTech, 333 p.
Bradley, P.M., Journey, C.A., Brigham, M.E., Burns, D.A., Button, D.T., and Riva-Murray, K., 2013, Intra- and inter-basin mercury comparisons—Importance of basin scale and time-weighted methylmercury estimates: Environmental Pollution, v. 172, p. 42-52, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.08.008.
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Bradley, W.G., Borenstein, A.R., Nelson, L.M., Codd, G.A., Rosen, B.H., Stommel, E.W., and Cox, P.A., 2013, Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?: Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener, doi:10.3109/21678421.2012.750364.
Breyta, R., Jones, A., Stewart, B., Brunson, R., Thomas, J., Kerwin, J., Bertolini, J., Mumford, S., Patterson, C., and Kurath, G., 2013, Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington state coastal steelhead trout: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, v. 104, no. 3, p. 179-195, doi:10.3354/dao02596.
Bright, P.R., Buxton, H.T., Balistrieri, L.S., Barber, L.B., Chapelle, F.H., Cross, Paul, C., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Plumlee, G.S., Sleeman, J.M., Tillitt, D.E., Toccalino, P.L., and Winton, J.R., 2013, U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy—Providing environmental health science for a changing world: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1383-E, 43 p.
Burns, D., Aiken, G., Bradley, P., Journey, C., and Schelker, J., 2013, Specific ultra-violet absorbance as an indicator of mercury sources in an Adirondack River basin: Biogeochemistry, v. 113, no. 1-3, p. 451-466, doi:10.1007/s10533-012-9773-5.
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Carlisle, D.M., and Woodside, M.D., 2013, Ecological health in the Nation's streams: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2013-3033, 6 p.
Chalmers, A., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., Degnan, J.R., Coles, J., Agee, J.L., and Luce, D., 2013, Characterization of mercury contamination in the Androscoggin River, Coos County, New Hampshire: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1076, 58 p (2 XLS Appendices).
Chapelle, F.H., Bradley, P.M., Journey, C.A., and McMahon, P.B., 2013, Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems: Ground Water, v. 51, no. 3, p. 363-372, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00987.x.
Chapelle, F.H., Campbell, B.G., Widdowson, M.A., and Landon, M.K., 2013, Modeling the long-term fate of agricultural nitrate in groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley, California (Chapter 6), in Bradley, P.M., ed., Current Perspectives in Contaminant Hydrology and Water Resources Sustainability: New York, InTech, ISBN:9789535110460.
Chun, C.L., Ochsner, U., Byappanahalli, M.N., Whitman, R.L., Tepp, W.H., Lin, G., Johnson, E.A., Peller, J., and Sadowsky, M.J., 2013, Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 6, p. 2587-2594, doi:10.1021/es304743m.
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Cornelissen, G., Rutherford, D.W., Arp, H.P.H., Dörsch, P., Kelly, C.N., and Rostad, C.E., 2013, Sorption of pure N2O to biochars and other organic and inorganic materials under anhydrous conditions: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 14, p. 7704-7712, doi:10.1021/es400676q.
Cornwell, E.R., Eckerlin, G.E., Thompson, T.M., Batts, W.N., Getchell, R.G., Groocock, G.H., Kurath, G., Winton, J.R., Casey, R.N., Casey, J.W., Bain, M.B., and Bowser, P.R., 2012, Predictive factors and viral genetic diversity for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River: Journal of Great Lakes Research, v. 38, no. 2, p. 278-288, doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.01.006.
Croteau, M.-N., Cain, D.J., and Fuller, C.C., 2013, Novel and nontraditional use of stable isotope tracers to study metal bioavailability from natural particles: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 7, p. 3424-3431, doi:10.1021/es400162f.
Custer, C.M., Custer, T.W., and Hines, J.E., 2012, Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, Between 2006 and 2010: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 31, no. 8, p. 1788-1792, doi:10.1002/etc.1894.
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De La Cruz, S.E.W., Takekawa, J.Y., Spragens, K.A., Yee, J., Golightly, R.T., Massey, G., Henkel, L.A., Scott Larsen, R., and Ziccardi, M., 2013, Post-release survival of surf scoters following an oil spill—An experimental approach to evaluating rehabilitation success: Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 67, no. 1-2, p. 100-106, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.027.
Eberts, S.M., Thomas, M.A., and Jagucki, M.L., 2013, The quality of our Nation's waters—Factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination—Understanding observed water quality and anticipating future water quality: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1385, 120 p.
Ely, C.R., Hall, J.S., Schmutz, J.A., Pearce, J.M., Terenzi, J., Sedinger, J.S., and Ip, H.S., 2013, Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection and exposure to influenza A viruses: PLoS ONE, v. 8, no. 3, p. e57614, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057614.
Foreman, W.T., Gray, J.L., ReVello, R.C., Lindley, C.E., and Losche, S.A., 2013, An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water (Chapter 4), in Cobb, G.P., and Smith, P.N., eds., Evaluating Veterinary Pharmaceutical Behavior in the Environment: American Chemical Society 1126, p. 57-136.
Francy, D.S., Stelzer, E.A., Duris, J.W., Brady, A.M.G., Harrison, J.H., Johnson, H.E., and Ware, M.W., 2013, Predictive models for Escherichia coli concentrations at inland lake beaches and relationship of model variables to pathogen detection: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 79, no. 5, p. 1676-1688, doi:10.1128/aem.02995-12.
Gallegos, T.J., Fuller, C.C., Webb, S.M., and Betterton, W., 2013, Uranium(VI) interactions with mackinawite in the presence and absence of bicarbonate and oxygen: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 13, p. 7357-7364, doi:10.1021/es400450z.
Ginsberg, H.S., Gettman, A., Becker, E., Bandyopadhyay, A.S., and Lebrun, R.A., 2013, Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island: Rhode Island Medical Journal, v. 96, no. 7, p. 5.
Godsey, M.S., Jr., King, R.J., Burkhalter, K., Delorey, M., Colton, L., Charnetzky, D., Sutherland, G., Ezenwa, V.O., Wilson, L.A., Coffey, M., Milheim, L.E., Taylor, V.G., Palmisano, C., Wesson, D.M., and Guptill, S.C., 2013, Ecology of potential West Nile virus vectors in southeastern Louisiana—Enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, no. 5, p. 986-996, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0109.
Golden, H.E., Knightes, C.D., Conrads, P.A., Feaster, T.D., Davis, G.M., Benedict, S.T., and Bradley, P.M., 2013, Climate change and watershed mercury export—A multiple projection and model analysis: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 32, no. 9, p. 2165-2174, doi:10.1002/etc.2284.
Gonzalez-Martin, C., Teigell-Perez, N., Lyles, M., Valladares, B., and Griffin, D.W., 2013, Epifluorescent direct counts of bacteria and viruses from topsoil of various desert dust storm regions: Research in Microbiology, v. 164, no. 1, p. 17-21, doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2012.08.009.
Graham, A.M., Aiken, G.R., and Gilmour, C.C., 2013, Effect of dissolved organic matter source and character on microbial Hg methylation in Hg-S-DOM solutions: Environmental Science and Technology, doi:10.1021/es400414a (Advanced Web release).
Grasman, K.A., Echols, K.R., May, T.M., Peterman, P.H., Gale, R.W., and Orazio, C.E., 2013, Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 32, no. 3, p. 548-561, doi:10.1002/etc.2089.
Gray, J.E., Pribil, M.J., Van Metre, P.C., Borrok, D.M., and Thapalia, A., 2013, Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 29, p. 1-12, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.12.001.
Haack, S.K., and Duris, J.W., 2013, Dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria, bacterial pathogen genes, and organic wastewater contaminants in the Little Calumet River—Portage Burns Waterway, Indiana: Journal of Great Lakes Research, v. 39, no. 2, p. 317-326, doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2013.03.015.
Hall, J.S., Krauss, S., Franson, J.C., Teslaa, J.L., Nashold, S.W., Stallknecht, D.E., Webby, R.J., and Webster, R.G., 2013, Avian influenza in shorebirds—Experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus: Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, v. 7, no. 1, p. 85-92, doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00358.x.
Hall, J.S., TeSlaa, J.L., Nashold, S.W., Halpin, R.A., Stockwell, T., Wentworth, D.E., Dugan, V., and Ip, H.S., 2013, Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage—Drift, shift and stability: Virology Journal, p. 179, doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-179.
Hansen, J.D., Woodson, J.C., Hershberger, P.K., Grady, C., Gregg, J.L., and Purcell, M.K., 2012, Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii): Fish and Shellfish Immunology, v. 32, no. 2, p. 259-267, doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2011.11.010.
Hill, N.J., Takekawa, J.Y., Ackerman, J.T., Hobson, K.A., Herring, G., Cardona, C.J., Runstadler, J.A., and Boyce, W.M., 2012, Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): Molecular Ecology, v. 21, no. 24, p. 5986-5999, doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05735.x.
Journey, C.A., Beaulieu, K.M., and Bradley, P.M., 2013, Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs (Chapter 2), in Bradley, P.M., ed., Current Perspectives in Contaminant Hydrology and Water Resources Sustainability: New York, InTech, ISBN:9789535110460.
Kappel, W.M., and Nystrom, E.A., 2012, Dissolved methane in New York groundwater, 1999-2011: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1162, 6 p.
Kell, A.M., Wargo, A.R., and Kurath, G., 2013, The role of virulence in in vivo superinfection fitness of the vertebrate RNA virus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: Journal of Virology, v. 87, no. 14, p. 8145-8157, doi:10.1128/JVI.00089-13.
Kemble, N.E., Hardesty, D.K., Ingersoll, C.G., Kunz, J.L., Sibley, P.K., Calhoun, D.L., Gilliom, R.J., Kuivila, K.M., Nowell, L.H., and Moran, P.W., 2013, Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas—Part II-Sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 64, no. 1, p. 52-64, doi:10.1007/s00244-012-9815-y.
Kesteloot, K., Azizan, A., Whitman, R., and Nevers, M., 2012, New recreational water testing alternatives: Park Science, v. 29, no. 2.
Kharaka, Y.K., Thordsen, J.J., Conaway, C.H., and Thomas, R.B., 2013, The energy-water nexus—Potential groundwater-quality degradation associated with production of shale gas: Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, v. 7, no. 0, p. 417-422, doi:10.1016/j.proeps.2013.03.132.
Kolpin, D.W., Blazer, V.S., Gray, J.L., Focazio, M.J., Young, J.A., Alvarez, D.A., Iwanowicz, L.R., Foreman, W.T., Furlong, E.T., Speiran, G.K., Zaugg, S.D., Hubbard, L.E., Meyer, M.T., Sandstrom, M.W., and Barber, L.B., 2013, Chemical contaminants in water and sediment near fish nesting sites in the Potomac River Basin—Determining potential exposures to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu): Science of the Total Environment, v. 443, p. 700-716, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.063.
Kresse, T.M., Warner, N.R., Hays, P.D., Down, A., Vengosh, A., and Jackson, R.B., 2012, Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5273, 31 p.
Kurath, G., 2012, Molecular epidemiology and evolution of Novirhabdoviruses (Chapter 7), in Dietzgen, R.G., and Kuzmin, I.V., eds., Rhabdoviruses—Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Cytopathology, and Control: Norfolk, England, Caister Academic Press, ISBN:978-1-908230-11-9.
Kuwabara, J.S., Topping, B.R., Carter, J.L., Wood, T.M., Cameron, J.M., Asbill-Case, J.R., and Carlson, R.A., 2012, Changes in benthic nutrient sources within a wetland after hydrologic reconnection: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 31, no. 9, p. 1995-2013, doi:10.1002/etc.1914.
Landkamer, L.L., Harvey, R.W., Scheibe, T.D., and Ryan, J.N., 2013, Colloid transport in saturated porous Media—Elimination of attachment efficiency in a new colloid transport model: Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20195 (Advanced Web release).
Lovy, J., Lewis, N.L., Hershberger, P.K., Bennett, W., Meyers, T.R., and Garver, K.A., 2012, Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring: Veterinary Microbiology, v. 161, no. 1-2, p. 66-76, doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.07.020.
Lovy, J., Piesik, P., Hershberger, P.K., and Garver, K.A., 2013, Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic Salmon As a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type Iva with insights into pathology and host immunity: Veterinary Microbiology, v. 166, no. 1-2, p. 91-101, doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.05.019.
Luis, A.D., Hayman, D.T.S., O'Shea, T.J., Cryan, P.M., Gilbert, A.T., Pulliam, J.R.C., Mills, J.N., Timonin, M.E., Willis, C.K.R., Cunningham, A.A., Fooks, A.R., Rupprecht, C.E., Wood, J.L.N., and Webb, C.T., 2013, A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses—Are bats special?: Proceedings of the Royal Society B—Biological Sciences, v. 280, no. 1756, doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2753.
Maharaj, S.V.M., Orem, W.H., Tatu, C.A., Lerch, H.E., III, and Szilagyi, D.N., 2013, Organic compounds In water extracts of coal—Links to Balkan endemic nephropathy: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, p. 1-17, doi:10.1007/s10653-013-9515-1.
Mayer, K.U., 2013, Quantifying natural attenuation rates: International Innovation - North America, January 2013, p. 34-37.
Miller, L.G., Baesman, S.M., Kirshtein, J., Voytek, M.A., and Oremland, R.S., 2013, A biogeochemical and genetic survey of acetylene fermentation by environmental samples and bacterial isolates: Geomicrobiology Journal, v. 30, no. 6, p. 501-516, doi:10.1080/01490451.2012.732662.
Minor, M., 2013, Effluent impacted systems—Effects on wildlife diversity, behavior, and morphology: St. Cloud University, Masters thesis.
Muzaffar, S.B., Hill, N.J., Takekawa, J.Y., Perry, W.M., Smith, L.M., and Boyce, W.M., 2012, Role of bird movements in the epidemiology of west nile and avian influenza virus: Human-Wildlife Interactions, v. 6, no. 1, p. 72-88, doi:10.1007/s10653-012-9477-8.
Nevers, M.B., Byappanahalli, M.N., and Whitman, R.L., 2013, Choices in recreational water quality monitoring—New opportunities and health risk trade-offs: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 7, p. 3073-3081, doi:10.1021/es304408y.
Nimick, D.A., Caldwell, R.R., Skaar, D.R., and Selch, T.M., 2013, Fate of geothermal mercury from Yellowstone National Park in the Madison and Missouri rivers, USA: Science of the Total Environment, v. 443, no. 0, p. 40-54, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.080.
Nowell, L.H., Moran, P.W., Gilliom, R.J., Calhoun, D.L., Ingersoll, C.G., Kemble, N.E., Kuivila, K.M., and Phillips, P.J., 2013, Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas—Part I-Distribution in relation to urbanization: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 64, no. 1, p. 32-51, doi:10.1007/s00244-012-9813-0.
Olson, W., Emmenegger, E., Glenn, J., Simchick, C., Winton, J., and Goetz, F., 2013, Expression kinetics of key genes in the early innate immune response to Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb infection in yellow perch (Perca flavescens): Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 41, no. 1, p. 11-19, doi:10.1016/j.dci.2013.03.012.
Olson, W., Emmenegger, E., Glenn, J., Winton, J., and Goetz, F., 2013, Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes: Journal of Fish Diseases, v. 36, no. 8, p. 711-719, doi:10.1111/jfd.12068.
Osorio, J.E., Ciuoderis, K.A., Lopera, J.G., Piedrahita, L.D., Murphy, D., LeVasseur, J., Carrillo, L., Ocampo, M.C., and Hofmeister, E., 2012, Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated from captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 87, no. 3, p. 565-572, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0655.
Papoulias, D.M., and Parcher, J.W., 2013, Challenge theme 3—Protecting the environment and safeguarding human health (Chapter 5), in United States—Mexican borderlands—Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science: U.S. Geological Survey Circular, p. 24 (pdf of Chapter 5).
Pavlović, N.M., Maksimović, V., Maksimović, J.D., Orem, W.H., Tatu, C.A., Lerch, H.E., Bunnell, J.E., Kostić, E.N., Szilagyi, D.N., and Paunescu, V., 2013, Possible health impacts of naturally occurring uptake of aristolochic acids by maize and cucumber roots—Links to the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, v. 35, no. 2, p. 215-226, doi:10.1007/s10653-012-9477-8.
Plumlee, G.S., Durant, J.T., Morman, S.A., Neri, A., Wolf, R.E., Dooyema, C.A., Hageman, P.L., Lowers, H.A., Fernette, G.L., Meeker, G.P., Benzel, W.M., Driscoll, R.L., Berry, C.J., Crock, J.G., Goldstein, H.L., Adams, M., Bartrem, C.L., Tirima, S., Behbod, B., Lindern, I.v., and Brown, M.J., 2013, Linking geological and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria: Environmental Health Perspectives, doi:10.1289/ehp.1206051 (Advanced Web release).
Plummer, L.N., Sibrell, P.L., Casile, G.C., Busenberg, E., Hunt, A.G., and Schlosser, P., 2013, Tracing groundwater with low-level detections of halogenated VOCs in a fractured carbonate-rock aquifer, Leetown Science Center, West Virginia, USA: Applied Geochemistry, v. 33, no. 0, p. 260-280, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.02.021.
Presser, T.S., and Luoma, S.N., 2013, Ecosystem-scale selenium model for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Regional Ecosystem Restoration Implementation Plan: San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, v. 11, no. 1, p. 1-39, jmie_sfews_11157.
Purcell, M.K., Laing, K.J., and Winton, J.R., 2012, Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses: Viruses, v. 4, no. 1, p. 140-166, doi:10.3390/v4010140.
Reeves, A.B., Pearce, J.M., Ramey, A.M., Ely, C.R., Schmutz, J.A., Flint, P.L., Derksen, D.V., Ip, H.S., and Trust, K.A., 2013, Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in western Alaska, USA: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, v. 49, no. 3, p. 600-610, doi:10.7589/2012-04-108.
Rhea, D.T., Farag, A.M., Harper, D.D., McConnell, E., and Brumbaugh, W.G., 2013, Mercury and selenium concentrations in biofilm, macroinvertebrates, and fish collected in the yankee fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and their potential effects on fish health: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 64, no. 1, p. 130-139, doi:10.1007/s00244-012-9816-x.
Riva-Murray, K., Bradley, P.M., Chasar, L.C., Button, D.T., Brigham, M.E., Eikenberry, B.C.S., Journey, C.A., and Lutz, M.A., 2013, Influence of dietary carbon on mercury bioaccumulation in streams of the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA: Ecotoxicology, v. Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 60-71, no. 1, p. 60-71, doi:10.1007/s10646-012-1003-3.
Riva-Murray, K., Bradley, P.M., Scudder Eikenberry, B.C., Knightes, C.D., Journey, C.A., Brigham, M.E., and Button, D.T., 2013, Optimizing stream water mercury sampling for calculation of fish bioaccumulation factors: Environmental Science and Technology, doi:10.1021/es303758e (Advanced Web release).
Rowe, G.L., Jr., Gilliom, R.J., and Woodside, M.D., 2013, Tracking and forecasting the Nation's water quality—Priorities and strategies for 2013-2023: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2013-3008, 6 p.
Rulison, E.L., Kuczaj, I., Pang, G., Hickling, G.J., Tsao, J.I., and Ginsberg, H.S., 2013, Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari-Ixodidae): Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 38, no. 1, p. 163-167, doi:10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12022.x.
Runkel, R.L., Walton-Day, K., Kimball, B.A., Verplanck, P.L., and Nimick, D.A., 2013, Estimating instream constituent loads using replicate synoptic sampling, Peru Creek, Colorado: Journal of Hydrology, v. 489, no. 0, p. 26-41, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.02.031.
Sahu, P., Michael, H.A., Voss, C.I., and Sikdar, P.K., 2013, Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping—Analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply: Hydrological Sciences Journal, v. 58, no. 6, p. 1-21, doi:10.1080/02626667.2013.813946.
Seo, H.J., Kim, H.C., Klein, T.A., Ramey, A.M., Lee, J.H., Kyung, S.G., Park, J.Y., Cho, Y.S., Cho, I.S., and Yeh, J.Y., 2013, Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea: PLoS ONE, v. 8, no. 2, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055165.
Smalling, K.L., Fellers, G.M., Kleeman, P.M., and Kuivila, K.M., 2013, Accumulation of pesticides in Pacific Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 32, no. 9, p. 2026-2034, doi:10.1002/etc.2308 (public access pdf file).
Smalling, K.L., Kuivila, K.M., Orlando, J.L., Phillips, B.M., Anderson, B.S., Siegler, K., Hunt, J.W., and Hamilton, M., 2013, Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary: Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 73, no. 1, p. 144-153, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.05.028.
Smalling, K.L., Reilly, T.J., Sandstrom, M.W., and Kuivila, K.M., 2013, Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States: Science of the Total Environment, v. 447, p. 179-185, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.021.
Smith, D., 2013, Relationships between the health of Alaska native communities and our environment—Phase 1, exploring and communicating: U.S. Geological Survey, 4 p. p.
Smith, D.J., Jaffe, D.A., Birmele, M.N., Griffin, D.W., Schuerger, A.C., Hee, J., and Roberts, M.S., 2012, Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America: Microbial Ecology, v. 64, no. 4, p. 973-985, doi:10.1007/s00248-012-0088-9.
Smith, D.J., Timonen, H.J., Jaffe, D.A., Griffin, D.W., Birmele, M.N., Perry, K.D., Ward, P.D., and Roberts, M.S., 2013, Intercontinental dispersal of bacteria and archaea by transpacific winds: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 79, no. 4, p. 1134-1139, doi:10.1128/aem.03029-12.
Smith, R.L., Repert, D.A., Barber, L.B., and LeBlanc, D.R., 2013, Long-term groundwater contamination after source removal—The role of sorbed carbon and nitrogen on the rate of reoxygenation of a treated-wastewater plume on Cape Cod, MA, USA: Chemical Geology, v. 337-338, p. 38-47, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.11.007.
Sovada, M.A., Pietz, P.J., Hofmeister, E.K., and Bartos, A.J., 2013, West Nile Virus in American white pelican chicks—Transmission, immunity, and survival: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, no. 6, p. 1152-1158, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0408.
Stavreva, D.A., George, A.A., Klausmeyer, P., Varticovski, L., Sack, D., Voss, T.C., Schiltz, R.L., Blazer, V.S., Iwanowicz, L.R., and Hager, G.L., 2012, Prevalent glucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources: Science Reports, v. 2 (Supplementary information).
Stoliker, D.L., Kaviani, N., Kent, D.B., and Davis, J.A., 2013, Evaluating ion exchange resin efficiency and oxidative capacity for the separation of uranium(iv) and uranium(vi): Geochemical Transactions, v. 14, no. 1, doi:10.1186/1467-4866-14-1.
Stoliker, D.L., Liu, C., Kent, D.B., and Zachara, J.M., 2013, Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments: Water Resources Research, v. 49, no. 2, p. 1163-1177, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20104.
Struckhoff, M.A., Stroh, E.D., and Grabner, K.W., 2013, Effects of mining-associated lead and zinc soil contamination on native floristic quality: Journal of Environmental Management, v. 119, p. 20-28, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.01.021.
Terrio, P.J., Ostrodka, L.M., Loftin, K.A., Good, G., and Holland, T., 2013, Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August—October 2012: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1019, 4 p.
Tesoriero, A.J., Duff, J.H., Saad, D.A., Spahr, N.E., and Wolock, D.M., 2013, Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 8, p. 3623-3629, doi:10.1021/es305026x.
Thomas, L.K., Widdowson, M.A., Chapelle, F.H., Novak, J.T., Boncal, J.E., and Lebrón, C.A., 2013, Distribution of potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon in aquifer sediments at a chloroethene-contaminated site: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 139, no. 1, p. 54-60, doi:10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0000597.
Thupaki, P., Phanikumar, M.S., and Whitman, R.L., 2013, Solute dispersion in the coastal boundary layer of southern Lake Michigan: Journal of Geophysical Research C—Oceans, v. 118, no. 3, p. 1606-1617, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20136.
Tillitt, D.E., and Giesy, J.P., 2013, Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 32, no. 3, p. 490-492, doi:10.1002/etc.2109.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012, Toxic contaminants in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed—Extent and severity of occurrence and potential biological effects—Technical report—December, 2012: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, 175 p.
Van Hemert, C., Pearce, J., Oakley, K., and Whalen, M., 2013, Wildlife disease and environmental health in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2013-3027, 4 p.
Vogel, J.R., Griffin, D.W., Ip, H.S., Ashbolt, N.J., Moser, M.T., Lu, J., Beitz, M.K., Ryu, H., and Domingo, J.W.S., 2013, Impacts of migratory sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) on microbial water quality in the Central Platte River, Nebraska, USA: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v. 224, no. 6, doi:10.1007/s11270-013-1576-3.
Waite, I.R., 2013, Development and application of an agricultural intensity index to invertebrate and algal metrics from streams at two scales: JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 49, no. 2, p. 431-448, doi:10.1111/jawr.12032.
Walter, D.A., 2013, The simulated effects of wastewater-management actions on the hydrologic system and nitrogen-loading rates to wells and ecological receptors, Popponesset Bay watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5060, 62 p.
Walter, D.A., and Starn, J.J., 2013, The use of process models to inform and improve statistical models of nitrate occurrence, Great Miami River Basin, southwestern Ohio: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5001, 75 p.
Williams, E.S., Mahler, B.J., and Van Metre, P.C., 2012, Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 2, p. 1101-1109, doi:10.1021/es303371t.
Wilson, H.M., Hall, J.S., Flint, P.L., Franson, J.C., Ely, C.R., Schmutz, J.A., and Samuel, M.D., 2013, High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska—Implications for surveillance: PLoS ONE, v. 8, no. 3, p. e58308, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058308.
Windham-Myers, L., Ward, K., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Agee, J.L., Kieu, L.H., and Kakouros, E., 2013, Biogeochemical implications of episodic impoundment in a restored tidal marsh of San Francisco Bay, California: Restoration Ecology, v. 21, no. 1, p. 124-132, doi:10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00849.x.
Work, T.M., Russell, R., and Aeby, G.S., 2012, Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes: Proceedings of the Royal Society B—Biological Sciences, v. 279, no. 1746, p. 4334-4341, doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.1827.
Writer, J.H., Ferrer, I., Barber, L.B., and Thurman, E.M., 2013, Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters: Science of the Total Environment, v. 461-462, p. 519-527, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.099.
Zuray, S., Kocan, R., and Hershberger, P., 2012, Synchronous cycling of ichthyophoniasis with chinook salmon density revealed during the annual Yukon River spawning migration: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, v. 141, no. 3, p. 615-623, doi:10.1080/00028487.2012.683476.
Hebert T. Buxton, Managing Editor
David W. Morganwalp, Editor
Carol Meteyer, Assistant Editor
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