See approximate Bayesian computation.
Chromosomes and chromatids with a centromere near one end.
See sum rule.
additive genetic variation
The portion of total genetic variation that is the average effect of substituting one allele, responsible for a phenotypic trait, for another. The proportion of genetic variation that responds to natural selection.
The formation of novel genetic combinations through hybridization of genetically distinct groups.
See amplified fragment length polymorphism.
The asexual formation of seeds without fertilization in which mitotic division is sometimes stimulated by male gametes.
A non-native or nonindigenous species.
Alternative form of a gene.
A measure of genetic diversity based on the average number of alleles per locus present in a population.
A measure of the number of alleles per locus; allows comparison between samples of different sizes by using various statistical techniques (e.g., rarefaction).
Species or populations that occur in geographically separate areas.
A polyploid originating through the addition of unlike chromosome sets, often in conjunction with hybridization between two species.
An individual whose alleles at a locus are descended from different ancestral alleles in the base population. Allozygotes may be either homozygous or heterozygous in state at this locus.
An allelic enzyme detected through protein electrophoresis used in many genetic applications such as hybrid identification and estimation of genetic variation.
See analysis of molecular variation.
amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)
A technique that uses PCR to amplify genomic DNA, cleaved by restriction enzymes, in order to generate DNA fingerprints; it is a combination of RFLP and arbitrary primer PCR. It does not require prior sequence knowledge.
To use PCR to make many copies of a segment of DNA.
Evolutionary changes that occur within a single lineage through time. See cladogenesis.
analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA)
A statistical approach to partition the total genetic variation in a species into components within and among populations or groups at different levels of hierarchical subdivision. Analogous to ANOVA in statistics.
A chromosomal condition resulting from either an excess or deficit of a chromosome or chromosomes so that the chromosome number is not an exact multiple of the typical haploid set in the species.
The joining of single strands of DNA because of the pairing of complementary bases. In PCR, primers anneal to complementary target DNA sequences during cooling of the DNA (after DNA is made single stranded by heating).
Analysis of variance.
Seed development without fertilization and meiosis. An apomict or apomictic plant produces seeds that are genetically identical to the parent plant.
approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)
A statistical framework using simulation modeling to approximate the Bayesian posterior distribution of parameters of interest (e.g., Ne, Nm) often by using multiple summary statistics (He, number of alleles, FST). It is far faster computationally than fully Bayesian approaches but generally slightly less accurate and precise.
Anthropogenic selection of phenotypes, with a heritable genetic basis, to elicit a desired phenotypic change in succeeding generations.
Selection of loci for marker development (e.g., SNPs or microsatellites) from an unrepresentative sample of individuals, or using a particular method, which yields loci that are not representative of the spectrum of allele frequencies in a population. For example, the choice of loci with high heterozygosity may bias assessments of allele frequency distributions in future studies using the loci such that alleles at low frequency (rare alleles) are underrepresented.
A statistical method using multilocus genotypes to assign individuals to the population from which they most likely originated (i.e., in which their expected multilocus genotype frequency is highest).
An increase in fitness of heterozygotes at a neutral locus because it is in gametic disequilibrium at a locus that is under selection. Also known as pseudo-overdominance. Compare with hitchhiking.
Preferential mating between individuals with a similar (or a different) phenotype is referred to positive (or negative) assortative mating. See also disassortative mating.
Self-fertilization in a hermaphroditic species where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual.
A locus that is located on an autosome (i.e., not on a sex chromosome).
Chromosomes that do not differ between sexes.
A measure of the expected homozygosity where alleles are identical by descent.
Individuals whose alleles at a locus are identical by descent from the same ancestral allele.